Why aren't 2D plots good enough?
Most data visualization problems involve some form of two-dimensional plotting, for example plotting sales by month. Over the last two hundred years, analysts have developed several different types of 2D plots, including scatter charts, line charts, and bar charts, so we have all the chart types we need for 2D data. But what happens if we have a 3D dataset?
The dataset I'm looking at is English Premier League (EPL) results. I want to know how the full-time scores are distributed, for example, are there more 1-1 results than 2-1 results? I have three numbers, the full-time home goals (FTHG), the full-time away goals (FTAG). and the number of games that had that score. How can I present this 3D data in a meaningful way?
Just the text
The easiest way to view the data is to create a table, so here it is. The columns are the away goals, the rows are the home goals, and the cell values are the number of matches with that result, so 778 is the number of matches with a score of 0-1.
This is OK for a smallish dataset like this, but if there are hundreds of rows and/or columns, it's not really viable. So what can we do?
A heatmap is a 2D map where the 3rd dimension is represented as color. The more intense (or lighter) the color, the higher the value. For this kind of plot to work, you do have to be careful about your color map. Usually, it's best to choose the intensity of just one color (e.g. shades of blue). In a few cases, multiple colors can work (colors for political parties), but those are the exceptions.
Here's the same data plotted as a heatmap using the Brewer color palette "RdPu" (red-purple).